Growing red beans is not only simple but also a widely cultivated agricultural commodity among farmers.
The scientific name of red beans is Phaseolus Vulgaris L, and it is one of the sought-after legumes. Therefore, this information on how to cultivate red beans will undoubtedly be beneficial for you.
Red beans are cultivated not just for their unique color, but also because they offer numerous benefits to the body. Therefore, it’s important for you to understand the correct method of growing red beans.
Apart from their health benefits, red beans are commonly used as a food ingredient.
One such example is using red beans as a primary ingredient in Red Bean Ice Dessert and as a base for salads.
The utilization of red beans in culinary preparations is due to their high nutritional value.
Furthermore, the multitude of benefits that red beans offer has made them a sought-after legume among the community.
Hence, the market for red beans generally remains active and is even witnessing an increase in demand.
Especially considering that a healthy lifestyle has become a favored choice for many individuals nowadays.
It’s important for you to be aware that the first step in growing red beans is to prepare the seeds beforehand.
To obtain these red bean seeds, there are two methods that can be employed. Firstly, you can purchase them at agricultural stores. Secondly, you can use mature red beans that are already on the plant.
However, there’s another important aspect that needs preparation when deciding on the type of red beans you want to cultivate or plant.
Generally, there are three types of red beans that can be cultivated: small red beans, medium-sized red beans, and large red beans.
How to Cultivate Red Beans for an Abundant Harvest
1. Growing Requirements
Red beans can thrive under certain climatic conditions as outlined below:
- Wet climates are ideal for cultivating red beans.
- The region should be situated at an elevation between 1,300 to 2,300 meters above sea level.
- The optimal temperature range for growing red beans is approximately 19-24 degrees Celsius.
- The best soil type for cultivating red beans is andosol, as it is rich in organic matter.
- The ideal soil pH for growing red beans is between 5.5 and 5.6.
- The area should receive an annual rainfall between 1,500 and 2,500 mm.
2. Seed Preparation
As mentioned earlier, to obtain red bean seedlings or seeds, you can purchase them from agricultural stores.
Additionally, you can also use mature red bean seeds, provided they are in good condition and have a somewhat shiny appearance.
Before planting these seedlings, it’s advisable to soak them in water for about 15 minutes.
3. Land Preparation
Before you begin planting, it’s necessary to prepare the land.
The soil intended for growing red beans needs to be plowed first, using a hoe, to achieve a looser texture.
Next, create planting beds that are 100 cm wide, 30 cm high, and spaced 40 cm apart.
Afterward, proceed to create ditches with a width of 25 cm between the planting beds to ensure proper drainage and prevent water from pooling on the agricultural land during rainy periods.
Once this is done, the next step is to apply mulch to the land. This will help facilitate the planting process. After mulching, you can either puncture holes or create openings to prepare for planting.
4. Red Bean Planting Process
The planting of red beans should be carried out during the dry season, specifically after rice has been planted or in areas with rice fields.
Subsequently, when planting them in the soil, the process should be initiated at the beginning of the rainy season.
The method for planting red beans typically involves making furrows at distances of approximately 40cm x 10cm or 40cm x 15cm. Each planting hole is then filled with 2 red bean seeds.
5. Care and Maintenance
a. Transplanting Process
The process of transplanting can be carried out when the red bean plants are around 14 days old, usually when the seedlings have started to sprout.
At this stage, inspect all the plants in the field and replace any abnormal or dead ones with new seedlings. Transplanting should be thorough to achieve optimal results.
b. Fertilization Process
Red bean plants need to be fertilized with additional nutrients to support growth, flowering, and fruiting.
The fertilization process involves two applications, both when the plants are 15 days old. Fertilizer is administered along with weed control around 35 days after planting.
c. Weeding Process
The weeding process is carried out 1 to 2 times before the plants start flowering, specifically between days 21 and 37-42 after planting.
The purpose of weeding is to minimize nutrient competition between red bean plants and weeds. Additionally, it reduces potential host sources for pests and helps loosen the soil, allowing gynophores to penetrate easily.
d. Irrigation Process
When planting red beans during the dry season, watering is initiated at 10-15 days of age. Subsequently, irrigation is carried out twice a day – in the morning and afternoon.
If planted during the rainy season, excess water can be drained through ditches between the planting beds and mounds. The planting beds’ location should maintain moisture for successful germination and growth of red bean seeds.
e. Pest and Disease Control
Pests that can disrupt the growth of red bean plants include leaf beetles (scientifically known as Henosa Pilachna Signatipennis) and leaf borers (referred to as Etiella Zinckenella).
Organic or chemical insecticides can be used to prevent and manage red bean plants that are affected by these pests. Insecticide application can be done every 4 days.
6. Harvesting Process
Red bean plants can be harvested when they are around 2 months old, and the harvesting process can be repeated every 3 days until they reach 3 months of age.
Red beans should only be harvested using bare hands. It’s advisable to avoid using cutting tools for harvesting as external bacteria can damage the red bean seeds.
Moreover, using cutting tools can lead to poor quality red beans due to prematurely opened pods.
Signs that red beans are ready for harvest:
- The pods of the red beans have a dull color.
- The skin of the pods often appears rough.
- The shape of the red bean pods is not overly prominent.
This is the correct way to cultivate red beans to yield high-quality produce with a good market value.