Soil : Definition, Types, Composition, Properties end The Types

Joko Warino S.P M.Si

Soil Definition, Types, Composition, Properties end The Types – The definition of soil can vary depending on the context and the field of expertise. Soil is a fundamental concept in various disciplines, including geography, economics, law, agriculture, and environmental science.

Each of these fields may have its own nuanced interpretation of what soil encompasses.

Definition of Soil According to Experts

Let’s explore the definition of land from the perspective of experts in these different domains.

1. Geography

Geographers view land as one of the Earth’s primary natural resources. In geography, land refers to the solid surface of the Earth, including continents, islands, and various landforms such as mountains, plains, and deserts.

It is the substrate upon which human activities and natural processes take place.

Land in geography is also associated with spatial relationships, land use patterns, and the study of how humans interact with their environment.

2. Economics

Economists approach the concept of land in a slightly different manner. In classical economics, land is considered one of the three factors of production, alongside labor and capital.

Land in this context represents all natural resources that are used in the production of goods and services.

It includes not only the physical land but also all the resources found on or beneath it, such as minerals, forests, and water bodies.

Land, as an economic resource, plays a crucial role in determining the value of assets, resource allocation, and land rent.

3. Law

Legal experts define land in a context that encompasses both the physical space and the associated rights and interests.

Land in legal terms refers to the surface of the Earth, including any buildings, fixtures, and improvements permanently attached to it.

In addition to the physical aspect, land law also considers the bundle of rights associated with land ownership, such as the right to use, lease, sell, and exclude others from the property.

Property law and real estate law are areas of law that deal extensively with land-related issues.

4. Agriculture

In agriculture, land refers to the arable soil and terrain used for the cultivation of crops, livestock grazing, and other farming activities.

Agriculturists and farmers value land based on its soil quality, topography, climate, and proximity to water sources.

The definition of land in agriculture is closely tied to its productivity and suitability for various agricultural practices.

5. Environmental Science

Environmental scientists view land as an integral component of ecosystems. Land encompasses terrestrial ecosystems, which include forests, grasslands, wetlands, and urban areas.

These ecosystems provide habitat for wildlife, contribute to biodiversity, and play a crucial role in maintaining ecological balance.

Land use decisions and conservation efforts are central to environmental science to ensure the sustainable management of natural resources.

In summary, the definition of land varies depending on the field of expertise. In a broad sense, land refers to the solid surface of the Earth, but its interpretation can expand to include associated resources, rights, and functions depending on the context.

Understanding the different perspectives on land is essential for effective land management, resource allocation, and addressing the complex challenges related to land use and sustainability in our world today.

Soil Types and Composition

Soil Types and Composition

Soil is a complex and dynamic natural resource that plays a crucial role in supporting life on Earth.

It serves as the medium for plant growth, provides habitats for various organisms, and plays a vital role in nutrient cycling and water filtration.

Soil composition refers to the arrangement and proportion of various components that make up soil.

There are several soil types, and their composition can vary widely depending on factors like climate, geology, vegetation, and human activity.

Here is a complete explanation of soil composition:

1. Sand

Sandy soils are primarily composed of large particles, primarily sand-sized minerals (0.05 to 2.0 millimeters in diameter). These soils have relatively low organic matter content.

Sandy soils drain quickly, have good aeration, and warm up quickly in the spring. However, they do not retain moisture or nutrients well and are often nutrient-poor.

2. Silt

Silty soils consist of fine particles that are smaller than sand but larger than clay (particles ranging from 0.002 to 0.05 millimeters in diameter).

Silty soils have good water and nutrient retention properties. They can become compacted easily, reducing their aeration and drainage capabilities.

3. Clay

Clay soils are characterized by very fine particles, with a diameter less than 0.002 millimeters. They have a high proportion of clay minerals.

Clay soils have excellent water and nutrient retention but poor drainage and aeration. They can become hard when dry and sticky when wet.

4. Loam

Loam is considered ideal for plant growth and is a mixture of sand, silt, and clay in relatively balanced proportions.

Loamy soils provide good drainage, aeration, and water retention. They are rich in organic matter, making them fertile and suitable for a wide range of crops.

5. Peat

Peat soils are composed mainly of partially decomposed organic matter (peat moss) with very little mineral content.

Peat soils are typically acidic and have extremely high organic matter content. They hold a lot of water and are often found in wetland areas. They are not very suitable for agriculture without proper management.

6. Chalk and Limestone Soils

These soils contain a significant proportion of calcium carbonate (lime) due to underlying chalk or limestone bedrock.

Chalk and limestone soils tend to be alkaline (high pH) and may have poor nutrient availability. However, they can be suitable for certain crops that thrive in alkaline conditions.

7. Alluvial Soils

Alluvial soils are formed by the deposition of sediment carried by rivers and streams. They vary in composition depending on the source material.

Alluvial soils are typically fertile and well-draining. They are often found in river valleys and are highly suitable for agriculture.

8. Volcanic Soils

Volcanic soils are derived from volcanic ash and lava and are rich in minerals such as potassium and phosphorus.

Volcanic soils are usually fertile and can support a variety of crops. They may vary in texture and composition depending on the volcanic activity in the region.

9. Arid and Desert Soils

Arid and desert soils often have a high concentration of sand and low organic matter content due to limited plant growth.

These soils have poor water retention and nutrient availability. They can be challenging for agriculture without irrigation and soil improvement.

Soil composition is a critical factor in determining its suitability for various land uses, including agriculture, construction, and environmental conservation.

Understanding the characteristics of different soil types and their compositions is essential for land management and sustainable resource use.

Soil testing and analysis are commonly performed to assess soil composition and guide land-use decisions.

Soil Properties

Soil properties are fundamental characteristics that describe the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of soil.

Understanding these properties is crucial for various applications, including agriculture, environmental science, engineering, and land management.

Here, we will discuss five key soil properties in detail:

1. Texture

Soil texture refers to the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay particles in a soil sample. These three particle sizes are often referred to as soil separates.

Soil texture greatly influences water retention, drainage, aeration, and nutrient-holding capacity. It also affects the ease of cultivation and root penetration for plants.

Loam, a balanced mixture of sand, silt, and clay, is often considered ideal for most agricultural purposes due to its good balance of drainage and water-holding capacity.

2. Structure

Soil structure refers to the arrangement and aggregation of soil particles into larger units or aggregates. Soil structure can be granular, blocky, platy, or prismatic, among others.

Good soil structure enhances root growth, allows for proper aeration and water infiltration, and prevents erosion. Poor soil structure can lead to compaction and reduced soil fertility.

3. pH (Acidity/Alkalinity)

Soil pH measures the soil’s acidity or alkalinity on a scale from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline), with 7 being neutral. Soils below 7 are acidic, while soils above 7 are alkaline.

Soil pH influences nutrient availability to plants. Different plants have specific pH preferences, and soil pH can affect the solubility of essential nutrients. Soil pH also plays a role in microbial activity and nutrient cycling.

4. Organic Matter Content

Organic matter content in soil refers to the amount of decomposed plant and animal material, including humus. It is typically expressed as a percentage of the soil’s total mass.

Organic matter improves soil structure, water-holding capacity, and nutrient retention. It also provides a food source for soil organisms and contributes to overall soil fertility. Soils with higher organic matter content are generally more productive.

5. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

CEC is a measure of a soil’s ability to retain and exchange cations (positively charged ions) like calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), and ammonium (NH4+).

CEC reflects a soil’s nutrient-holding capacity. Soils with higher CEC can hold more nutrients for plant uptake, reducing the risk of nutrient leaching. It is also an indicator of soil fertility and its ability to provide essential nutrients to plants.

These five soil properties provide a foundation for understanding the suitability of soil for various purposes and for making informed decisions about land use, crop selection, and soil management practices.

Soil properties can vary widely from one location to another, so soil testing and analysis are essential tools for tailoring land management strategies to specific soil conditions.

Additionally, maintaining and improving soil health is vital for sustainable agriculture and environmental conservation efforts.

The Function of Soil in Agriculture

The Function of Soil in Agriculture

Soil plays a crucial role in agriculture, providing a multitude of functions that are essential for plant growth and crop production. Here are key functions of soil in agriculture:

1. Nutrient Storage and Cycling

Soil serves as a reservoir for essential nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), as well as micronutrients like iron, zinc, and manganese. These nutrients are stored in the soil’s mineral and organic components and are made available to plants through a process called nutrient cycling.

Nutrient availability is vital for plant growth and development. Soil acts as a source of nutrients, releasing them to plants as needed. Proper nutrient management is crucial for optimizing crop yields and ensuring healthy plant growth.

2. Water Retention and Supply

Soil has the ability to retain and release water. It acts as a sponge, storing water when it’s abundant and supplying it to plants when they need it. The soil’s water-holding capacity depends on its texture and organic matter content.

Adequate soil moisture is essential for plant survival and growth. Soil helps regulate water availability to plants, preventing both drought stress and waterlogging. Proper irrigation and soil management are necessary to maintain an optimal moisture level.

3. Physical Support for Plants

Soil provides a physical substrate for plant roots to anchor themselves and access nutrients and water. It offers mechanical support, preventing plants from falling over and protecting them from environmental stressors.

Soil stability is essential for the development of strong and healthy root systems. Compacted or degraded soils can impede root growth and negatively impact plant health.

4. Biological Activity and Soil Microorganisms

Soil hosts a diverse community of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, earthworms, and other organisms. These soil organisms play a crucial role in decomposition, nutrient cycling, and soil health.

Soil microorganisms break down organic matter, making nutrients available to plants. They also contribute to soil structure and fertility. Healthy soils with a rich microbiome are more resilient to disease and environmental stressors.

5. pH Buffering and Chemical Reactions

Soil acts as a buffer, helping to maintain a relatively stable pH level. It also facilitates various chemical reactions, such as nutrient transformations and the breakdown of toxic substances.

pH influences nutrient availability and microbial activity. Soils with an appropriate pH range (usually slightly acidic to neutral) are more conducive to healthy plant growth.

Additionally, soil chemistry affects the availability and toxicity of certain elements, such as aluminum and heavy metals.

In summary, soil serves as the foundation for agriculture, providing a range of critical functions that support plant growth and crop production.

To maximize agricultural productivity and sustainability, farmers and land managers must pay close attention to soil health, nutrient management, moisture regulation, and soil biology.

Sustainable agricultural practices aim to preserve and enhance these soil functions to ensure long-term food security and environmental conservation.

Soil Types According to USDA

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classifies soils into 12 major soil orders based on their properties, formation processes, and geographical distribution.

These soil orders provide a broad framework for understanding the diversity of soils in the United States and around the world.

Each soil order represents a unique set of characteristics and is associated with specific ecological and agricultural considerations.

Here are the 12 soil orders according to the USDA:

1. Entisols (Ent)

Entisols are soils with minimal horizon development, often characterized by recent or ongoing soil formation processes. They are usually found in areas with rapid erosion, deposition, or disturbances.

Entisols have little to no soil profile development, making them relatively young soils. They are commonly found in areas with shifting sand dunes, riverbanks, or volcanic deposits.

2. Inceptisols (In)

Inceptisols are soils with a moderate degree of horizon development. They are transitional between Entisols and more developed soils.

Inceptisols have some horizon differentiation, indicating more advanced soil formation than Entisols.

They are often found in forested regions, grasslands, and areas with seasonal moisture fluctuations.

3. Andisols (An)

Andisols are soils derived from volcanic ash and are known for their unique properties, such as high organic matter content and good nutrient-holding capacity.

Andisols are typically found in volcanic regions and are highly fertile. They have a dark color and are well-suited for agriculture due to their nutrient-rich nature.

4. Aridisols (Ar)

Aridisols are soils of arid or semi-arid regions, characterized by limited leaching and accumulation of salts and minerals.

Aridisols have distinctive horizon development, often featuring layers of salt or calcium carbonate.

They are commonly found in desert and arid steppe regions and can be challenging for agriculture due to high salinity.

5. Mollisols (Mo)

Mollisols are characterized by a deep, dark, organic-rich surface horizon (A horizon) and are considered some of the most fertile soils for agriculture.

Mollisols are found in temperate grasslands and prairies. They have excellent nutrient content, good structure, and high water-holding capacity, making them highly productive for crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans.

6. Spodosols (Sp)

Spodosols are soils that have a distinctive layer of organic matter leached downward, forming a subsurface horizon known as a spodic horizon. They are typically found in cool, humid regions.

Spodosols are often associated with coniferous forests and have acidic conditions. They are less suitable for agriculture due to nutrient leaching and low pH.

7. Ultisols (Ul)

Ultisols are weathered soils found primarily in warm, humid regions. They are characterized by clay-rich horizons and leached subsurface horizons.

Ultisols are typically found in the southeastern United States and other tropical and subtropical regions.

They can be productive for agriculture with proper management but often require soil amendments to address nutrient depletion.

8. Oxisols (Ox)

Oxisols are highly weathered, acidic soils found mainly in tropical and subtropical regions with high rainfall.

Oxisols are characterized by a deep weathered horizon, low nutrient content, and high iron and aluminum oxides. They are generally infertile and require intensive management for agriculture.

9. Gelisols (Gel)

Gelisols are soils found in cold regions where permafrost is present within 2 meters (6.6 feet) of the surface.

Gelisols are associated with tundra and polar environments. They often have frozen horizons, limiting agricultural use due to the short growing season and challenges associated with frozen soil.

10. Histosols (Hi)

Histosols are organic soils characterized by a thick layer of partially decomposed organic matter (peat or muck).

Histosols are typically found in wetlands, bogs, and marshes. They have high water-holding capacity but are generally unsuitable for agriculture without drainage and substantial amendments.

11. Aquepts (Aq)

Aquepts are soils found in wet environments, such as floodplains, where seasonal saturation or inundation occurs.

Aquepts have horizons indicative of seasonal saturation, making them important for the management of wetlands, rice cultivation, and certain types of aquatic agriculture.

12. Vertisols (Ve)

Vertisols are clay-rich soils that exhibit significant shrink-swell properties with changes in moisture content.

Vertisols are found in various climates but are most common in semi-arid to sub-humid regions.

They can be fertile for agriculture but require careful management due to their tendency to crack and swell, potentially damaging crops.

These 12 soil orders provide a framework for categorizing soils based on their characteristics and formation processes.

Understanding soil orders is important for land use planning, agriculture, environmental conservation, and land management decisions.

Soil properties within each order can vary widely, and local conditions often dictate specific management practices to optimize soil productivity and sustainability.

Soil Problems in Agriculture

Agriculture faces numerous soil-related challenges and problems that can have significant implications for food production, environmental sustainability, and the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide.

Here are key soil problems in agriculture:

1. Soil Erosion

  • Problem: Soil erosion is the removal of the topsoil layer by wind, water, or human activities. It can occur naturally, but human activities such as deforestation, improper land management, and intensive agriculture often accelerate erosion.
  • Impact: Erosion leads to the loss of fertile topsoil, reducing soil productivity and degrading agricultural land. It can also result in sedimentation of water bodies, affecting water quality and aquatic ecosystems.

2. Soil Degradation

  • Problem: Soil degradation encompasses various processes, including erosion, compaction, salinization, and acidification. It often results from unsustainable land use practices, overexploitation, and improper soil management.
  • Impact: Degraded soils have reduced fertility, poor water-holding capacity, and limited nutrient availability. This reduces crop yields, increases the need for fertilizers, and poses long-term threats to food security.

3. Salinization

  • Problem: Salinization occurs when soluble salts accumulate in the soil, typically due to irrigation in arid or semi-arid regions. Excessive salts can harm plant roots and disrupt nutrient uptake.
  • Impact: Salinized soils are less productive, and affected areas may become unsuitable for agriculture. Management strategies, such as improved drainage and salt-tolerant crop varieties, are needed to address this problem.

4. Soil Contamination

  • Problem: Soil contamination arises from the presence of pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Contamination can result from agricultural practices, improper waste disposal, and industrial activities.
  • Impact: Contaminated soils pose risks to human health and the environment. Contaminants can enter the food chain, affecting both crop quality and safety. Remediation efforts often require costly and time-consuming measures.

5. Soil Nutrient Depletion

  • Problem: Continuous cultivation without adequate nutrient replenishment can lead to soil nutrient depletion. Commonly depleted nutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as micronutrients.
  • Impact: Nutrient-depleted soils result in reduced crop yields and lower nutritional quality. Farmers often compensate by applying synthetic fertilizers, which can have environmental consequences, including nutrient runoff into water bodies.

6. Loss of Soil Biodiversity

  • Problem: Intensive agricultural practices, such as monocropping and heavy pesticide use, can harm soil biodiversity by reducing the diversity and abundance of beneficial soil organisms like earthworms, fungi, and beneficial bacteria.
  • Impact: A loss of soil biodiversity can disrupt essential ecosystem functions, including nutrient cycling and soil structure maintenance. It can also make soils more susceptible to pests and diseases, increasing the reliance on chemical inputs.

Addressing these soil problems in agriculture requires a multi-faceted approach that combines sustainable land management practices, technological innovations, and policy interventions. Some solutions include:

  • Conservation Agriculture: Implementing no-till or reduced-till farming practices to reduce soil erosion and improve soil structure.
  • Crop Rotation and Diversification: Rotating crops and incorporating cover crops to enhance soil fertility and reduce pest pressure.
  • Precision Agriculture: Using technology, such as soil testing and GPS-guided machinery, to optimize nutrient and water use.
  • Agroforestry: Integrating trees and shrubs into agricultural systems to improve soil quality and reduce erosion.
  • Soil Remediation: Employing techniques like phytoremediation and soil amendments to mitigate soil contamination.
  • Sustainable Irrigation Practices: Implementing efficient irrigation methods and improving water management to reduce salinization risks.

Solving soil problems is essential for achieving long-term food security, maintaining ecosystem health, and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

It requires collaboration among farmers, scientists, policymakers, and the broader agricultural community to promote sustainable practices and responsible land management.


Soil is the foundation of agriculture, playing a pivotal role in food production, environmental sustainability, and the overall well-being of our planet.

It serves as a complex and dynamic medium that supports plant growth and provides essential ecosystem services.

The health and quality of soil profoundly impact agricultural productivity, and addressing soil-related challenges is crucial for a sustainable and resilient agricultural future.

In essence, soil is not merely dirt beneath our feet; it is a living, dynamic, and indispensable resource that sustains life on Earth.

Recognizing the importance of soil in agriculture and adopting practices that prioritize soil health are essential steps toward achieving a sustainable, productive, and resilient agricultural system that can meet the challenges of the future.



Joko Warino S.P M.Si

Allow me to introduce myself, my name is Joko Warino, a lecturer at one of the universities in Indonesia (Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, UIN Suska Riau Indonesia). My field of expertise is soil science.

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